工業革命

Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a long and complex historical process, from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, from the traditional handicraft production method to mechanization and mass production. The following are the main stages of development of the Industrial Revolution:

  1. Pre-industrial period: This period occurred in the early 18th century, and Britain was one of the first countries to experience industrial change. This period was mainly a preparatory period, as craftsmen and farmers began to adopt some new production methods, such as textile looms and water-powered machinery.
  2. Industrial Revolution 1.0: This phase began in the late 18th century and was centered in Britain. The textile industry and mining were the first areas to be affected, and the introduction of mechanization significantly improved production efficiency. Key inventions of the period include the textile loom and the steam engine.
  3. Industrial Revolution 2.0: This phase took place in the mid-19th century and was based on electricity and the internal combustion engine. The main features of this period were the development of mass production and transportation such as railways. The spread of electricity allowed factories to operate more efficiently, and the advent of the internal combustion engine transformed transportation.
  4. Industrial Revolution 3.0: This stage occurred in the second half of the 20th century and was dominated by electronics and automation. The development of computers and information technology has brought digital production and automated manufacturing, and the production process increasingly relies on computer control and automation equipment.
  5. Industrial Revolution 4.0: This stage occurs in the 21st century and is dominated by emerging technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), big data, and 3D printing. Industry 4.0 emphasizes intelligent, highly flexible and customized production methods, integrating digital technology with manufacturing.

The development of these stages is not strictly divided, but there is some overlap in time. The entire industrial revolution process has had a profound impact on the world's economy, society, science and technology, and culture, shaping the face of modern society.

By Nicolás Pérez, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=195711
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